1.4.1 Basic concepts
AIMBITUMEN:The basic idea in building a road or parking area for all-weather use by vehicles is to prepare a suitable subgrade or foundation¸ provide necessary drainage¸ and construct a pavement that will:
*have sufficient total thickness and internal strength to carry expected traffic loads;
*be sufficiently impermeable to prevent the penetration or internal accumulation of moisture; and
*have a top surface that is smooth¸ skid resistant¸ and resistant to wear¸ distortion¸ and deterioration by weather and deicing chemicals.

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1.3.1 Plant Mix

AIMBITUMEN: Asphalt paving mixtures or hot mix asphalt is manufactured in a central mixing facility. The workhorse of the asphalt industry is the dense-graded HMA mixture. It consists of a well-graded, high-quality aggregate and asphalt cement. The two components are mechanically mixed while hot to ensure good coating of the aggregate and consistency of the mix. In order to ensure the quality of the resultant mix it is necessary to carefully proportion the blend of several different aggregates to consistently produce a uniform final gradation that meets the requirements of local specifications.

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AIMBITUMEN: Asphalt cement is a dark brown to black cementitious material that consists primarily of bitumens. It is either found in natural asphalt deposits or it is produced by the distillation of petroleum. In the United States, asphalt cement is primarily used for construction and maintenance of highways. The two sources for asphalt cement used in the United States are natural deposits and refined petroleum asphalt.

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AIMBITUMEN: The world asphalt is believed to be derived from the ancient Akkadian term asphaltic. The Homeric Greeks adopted the term in the form asphaltos, meaning "to make firm or stable". The Akkadian asphaltic evolved to the late Latin asphaltum, the French asphalt, and ultimately the English asphalt. From its ancient past to the present, asphalt has been used as cement for bonding, coating, and waterproofing objects. Asphalt truly is one of nature’s most versatile products.

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